On 15 April 2021, European Advocate General Giovanni Pitruzella issued an Opinion in one of the many truck cases, specifically that of the Spanish company Sumal S.L. v. Mercedes Benz Trucks España S.L., a Daimler subsidiary. Although the Spanish truck company was not mentioned in the European Commission’s decision of 19 July 2016 in which a fine was imposed on Daimler, Suma S.L. took the view that liability towards it could also be imputed because Mercedes Benz Trucks España S.L. formed a single economic unit with the parent company. It is a generally accepted doctrine that a parent company can be liable for anti-competitive conduct by a subsidiary if they together form an ‘economic unit’. This is termed ‘bottom-up liability’. Advocate General Pitruzzella concluded that, if such an economic unit exists and the subsidiary contributed substantially to the infringement, ‘top-down liability’ is also possible.